X. Yao. Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks, International Journal of Intelligent Systems,  4, 539-567. 1993


Abstract -  Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks (EANNs) can be considered as a combination of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and evolutionary search procedures, such as genetic algorithms (GAs). This paper distinguishes among three levels of evolution in EANNs, i.e., the evolution of connection weights, architectures, and learning rules. It first reviews each kind of evolution in detail and then analyses major issues related to each kind of evolution. It is shown in the paper that although there is a lot of work on the evolution of connection weights and architectures, research on the evolution of learning rules is still in its early stages. Interactions among different levels of evolution are far from being understood. It is argued in the paper that the evolution of learning rules and its interactions with other levels of evolution play a vital role in EANNs.